Where is it originally from?
What does it look like?
Scrambling perennial, often forming a dense tangled shrub (<2-3 m tall), with wiry to woody stems that are sparingly branched. Very fleshy, leathery leaves have 1-3 coarse serrations on each side, and the uppermost leaves are smaller, narrower and occasionally smooth edged. Dense clusters of yellow, ragwort-like flowers (11 mm diameter, Mar-Aug) are followed by fluffy seeds.
Are there any similar species?
German ivy (Senecio mikanioides) is similar, but its leaves are much thinner and more delicate.
Why is it weedy?
Produces many long-lived seeds that are dispersed a long way from parent plants. Moderate growth rate and layering stems, scrambles over shrubs and ground, forms dense, tall thickets. Tolerates salt, wind, drought, semi-shade and damage.
How does it spread?
Wind spreads the seed, and seed and fragments are spread in dumped vegetation and soil movement. Common sources include waste places, roadsides, bush edges and gardens.
What damage does it do?
Smothers ground and low-growing plants to 3 m tall, forming dense, long-lived mats that prevent the establishment of native plant seedlings.
Which habitats is it likely to invade?
Coastal, rocky areas, cliffs, bush edges, regenerating lowland forests and inshore islands.
What can I do to get rid of it?
Most easily controlled at flowering, when highly visible and before seed is produced.
1. Hand pull small plants, or dig out roots (all year round): Dispose of at a refuse transfer station, burn, or bury deeply.
2. Stump swab (all year round): glyphosate (100ml/L) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (1g/L).
3. Cut stems below waist height, spray below this point (spring-summer to actively growing plants): glyphosate (10ml/L (knapsack) or 2L/100L (spraygun)) or metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (2g/10L (knapsack) or 20g/100L (spraygun)) or a product containing 100g picloram+300g triclopyr/L (60ml/10L) or a product containing 200g 2,4-D+100g dicamba/L (12ml/L) or dicamba 50g/L (24ml/L) or amitrole (150ml/15L (knapsack) or 2L/100L (spraygun)). Add penetrant to all mixes.
What can I do to stop it coming back?
Cut stumps and dropped stems resprout. Bared areas reseed.