Proteaceae (protea) family
Also known as
Where is it originally from?
What does it look like?
Large erect shrub or small tree (<5m) that isn?t prickly. Leathery, flattened and willow-like leaves (60-110 x 5-15 mm) have either little or no stem. Clusters of 5-20 tiny white flowers (Aug-Nov) are followed by woody, oval seed capsules (20-27 x 13-16 mm) with warty surfaces and containing winged black seeds (15-20 x 5-7 mm).
Are there any similar species?
Only flat-leaved, non-prickly hakea species wild in NZ. Similar to Acacia longifolia.
Why is it weedy?
Tolerant of fire, damage (not grazed), damp to severe drought, moderate shade, poor soils, high to cool temperatures. Long-lived, dominates other species in poor soils.
How does it spread?
Seed encouraged by fire. Water and soil movement, livestock, dumped vegetation. Hedges, waste places, exotic plantations.
What damage does it do?
Dominates low shrubland and regenerating forest in very low fertility, poor soil habitats. Keeps sites dry, adds to fire risk, causes succession to pampas and grasses. Contributes to local extinction of rare native fern, orchid and shrub species.
Which habitats is it likely to invade?
Gumlands, shrubland, short tussockland, bare land, fernland, disturbed forest, especially low-humus and burnt sites.
What can I do to get rid of it?
1. Leave for natural succession (10-30 years): can be accelerated by felling plants in sites of dense native vegetation, allowing native species to overtop Hakea. Best in winter to maximise regeneration and minimise fire risk.
2. Pull out small plants (all year round): mulch.
3. Cut and squirt (autumn): make 1 cut every 100mm around the trunk and fill each cut with 2g metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg.
4. Cut trunk and paint stump (autumn-winter): cut trunk near to the ground, and swab freshly cut stump with metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/L).
5. Overall spray (autumn): metsulfuron-methyl 600g/kg (5g/10L)+penetrant; or glyphosate (150ml/15L).
What can I do to stop it coming back?
Avoid fire at all times, implement fire protection strategy. Most sites can be left to regenerate to native species provided fire can be permanently avoided.